Distilled • LeetCode • Dynamic Programming
 Introduction
 Two Ways of Solving DP Problems
 Tabulation vs. Memoization
 Example: Length of the Longest Increasing Subsequence
 Pattern: Dynamic Programming
 [10/Hard] Regular Expression Matching
 [53/Easy] Maximum Subarray
 [70/Easy] Climbing Stairs
 [139/Medium] Word Break
 [152/Medium] Maximum Product Subarray
 [304/Medium] Range Sum Query 2D  Immutable
 [322/Medium] Coin Change
 [329/Hard] Longest Increasing Path in a Matrix
 [516/Medium] Longest Palindromic Subsequence
 [518/Medium] Coin Change 2
 [542/Medium] 01 Matrix
 [689/Hard] Maximum Sum of 3 NonOverlapping Subarrays
 [983/Hard] Minimum Cost For Tickets
 [1048/Medium] Longest String Chain
 [1531/Hard] String Compression II
 Famous DP Problems
 Further Reading
 Quiz
Introduction
 Dynamic Programming (DP) is a powerful technique used for solving a particular class of problems. The concept is based on a very simple overarching idea:
If you have solved a problem with a particular input, save the result for future reference, so as to avoid solving the same problem again!
Always remember:
“Those who can’t remember the past are condemned to repeat it!”
Two Ways of Solving DP Problems
 TopDown : Start solving the given problem by breaking it down. If you see that the problem has been solved already, then just return the saved answer. If it has not been solved, solve it and save the answer. This is referred to as memoization. Depending on the problem, the recursive method of DP is usually easy to think of and more intuitive than the bottomup method.
The topdown paradigm of solving DP problems involves splitting the given problem repeatedly and ultimately working towards solving the base cases.
 BottomUp : Analyze the problem and see the order in which the subproblems are solved and start solving from the trivial subproblem, up towards the given problem. In this process, it is guaranteed that the subproblems are solved before solving the problem. This is referred to as dynamic programming.
The bottomup paradigm of solving DP problems involves building up the solution by solving the base cases and working towards the given problem.
Tabulation vs. Memoization

As highlighted above, there are two different ways to store the values so that the values of a subproblem can be reused. Here, will discuss two patterns of solving dynamic programming (DP) problems:
 Tabulation: Bottom Up
 Memoization: Top Down
 Before getting to the definitions of the above two terms consider the following statements:
 Version 1: Study the theory of DP, then practice some problems on classic DP, and ultimately master DP.
 Version 2: To master DP, practice DP problems to realize the concepts of DP.
 Both versions say the same thing, the difference simply lies in the way of conveying the message and that’s exactly how BottomUp and TopDown DP differs. Version 1 can be associated with BottomUp DP and Version 2 can be associated with TopDown DP.
Tabulation Method – Bottom Up Dynamic Programming
 As the name itself suggests starting from the bottom and accumulating answers while working your way to the top. Let’s discuss in terms of state transitions.
 Let’s define our DP problem to be finding
dp[x]
, wheredp[x = 0]
is the base state anddp[x = n]
is our destination state. In other words, the goal here is to find the value of the destination state, i.e.,dp[n]
using .  If we begin our series of transitions from the base state, i.e.,
dp[0]
and follow our state transitions to reach our destination statedp[n]
, we call it the BottomUp approach, as reflected in it’s name – we started our series of transitions from the bottommost base state and reached the topmost desired state.  Why do we call it the tabulation method? To know this let’s first look at some code to calculate the factorial of a number using a bottomup approach. Once again, as our general procedure to solve a DP problem, we start by defining a state. In this case, we define a state as
dp[x]
, wheredp[x]
is the factorial ofx
.  Per the definition of factorial, \(n! = n \times (n1)!\). In terms of the aforementioned states,
dp[x+1] = dp[x] * (x+1)
ordp[x] = dp[x1] * x
# Tabulated/bottomup version to find the factorial of x.
dp = [0] * (n+1)
# base case
dp[0] = 1 # since 0! = 1
for i in range(1, n):
dp[i] = dp[i1] * i
 The above code clearly follows the bottomup approach as it starts its transition from the bottommost base case
dp[0]
and reaches its destination statedp[n]
. Here, we may notice that the DP table is being populated sequentially and we are directly accessing the calculated states from the table itself and hence, we call it the tabulation method (since the process is akin to sequentially entering rows of entries holding the results within a table and accessing them in future iterations).
Memoization Method – TopDown Dynamic Programming
 Similar to the bottomup DP method above, let’s describe the process of solving DP problems in terms of state transitions. If we need to find the value for a state, say
dp[n]
, instead of starting from the base state, i.e.,dp[0]
, we seek our answer from states that arise as a result of splitting the statedp[n]
into subproblems following the state transition relation – which is the gist of the topdown pattern of DP.  Here, we start our journey from the topmost destination state and compute its answer by utilizing states that can help reach the destination state, till we reach the bottommost base state.
 Here’s some code for the factorial problem following the topdown DP pattern:
# Memoized version to find the factorial of x.
# To speed up, we store the values of calculated states.
# initialized to 1 to signify untouched states
dp = [0] * (n+1)
# return factorial of x!
def solve(x):
# if x is <= 0
if not x:
return 1
# if the result is precomputed,
# return it asis
if dp[x] != 1
return dp[x]
# else compute dp[x] recursively
dp[x] = x * solve(x1)
return dp[x]
 As seen in the code snipped above, we are storing our answers in a DP cache so that if next time we’re looking to figure out the answer corresponding to this state, we can simply return it from memory. This is basically why we call this mode of solving DP problems “memoization”, since we are storing the results from processed states.
 In this case, since the memory layout is linear, it may seem that the memory is being filled in a sequential manner (similar to the tabulation method), but you may consider other topdown DPs having a 2D memory layout such as Min Cost Path, where the memory is not filled in a sequential manner.
Comparison table
Example: Length of the Longest Increasing Subsequence
 Given a sequence, the goal of the longest increasing subsequence problem is, as the name suggests, to find the longest increasing subsequence. Formally, given a sequence \(S={a_1, a_2, a_3, a_4, \ldots, a_{n1}, a_n}\) we have to find a longest subset such that for all \(i\) and \(j\), \(j < i\) in the subset \(a_j < a_i\).
 We start off by trying to find the value of the longest subsequence at every index \(i\), say \(LS_i\), with the last element of sequence being \(a_i\). As such, the largest \(LS_i\) would be the longest subsequence in the given sequence. To begin \(LSi\) is assigned to be one since \(a_i\) is element of the sequence (last element). Then for all \(j\) such that \(j < i\) and \(a_j < a_i\), we find the largest \(LS_j\) and add it to \(LSi\).
 The algorithm is quadratic in time. In other words, it has a time complexity of \(O(n^2)\)
Pseudocode

The time complexity of the algorithm can be reduced by using better a data structure rather than an array. Storing the predecessor array and its index would make the algorithm efficient.

A similar concept could be applied in finding longest path in Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG).
for i=0 to n1
LS[i]=1
for j=0 to i1
if (a[i] > a[j] and LS[i] < LS[j])
LS[i] = LS[j] + 1
for i=0 to n1
if (largest < LS[i])
Pattern: Dynamic Programming
[10/Hard] Regular Expression Matching
Problem
 Given an input string
s
and a patternp
, implement regular expression matching with support for.
and*
where:.
Matches any single character.*
Matches zero or more of the preceding element.

The matching should cover the entire input string (not partial).
 Example 1:
Input: s = "aa", p = "a"
Output: false
Explanation: "a" does not match the entire string "aa".
 Example 2:
Input: s = "aa", p = "a*"
Output: true
Explanation: '*' means zero or more of the preceding element, 'a'. Therefore, by repeating 'a' once, it becomes "aa".
 Example 3:
Input: s = "ab", p = ".*"
Output: true
Explanation: ".*" means "zero or more (*) of any character (.)".
 Constraints:
1 <= s.length <= 20
1 <= p.length <= 30
s contains only lowercase English letters.
p contains only lowercase English letters, '.', and '*'.
It is guaranteed for each appearance of the character '*', there will be a previous valid character to match.
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: DP
 The following solution uses the inplace OR operator (
=
) in Python, implemented using the__ior__()
magic (check [here] or here for more info):
class Solution:
def isMatch(self, s: str, p: str) > bool:
# Initialize DP table
# Row indices represent the lengths of subpatterns
# Col indices represent the lengths of substrings
dp = [
[False for _ in range(len(s)+1)]
for _ in range(len(p)+1)
]
# Mark the origin as True, since p[:0] == "" and s[:0] == ""
dp[0][0] = True
# Consider all subpatterns p[:i], i > 0 against empty string s[:0]
for i in range(1, len(p)+1):
# Subpattern matches "" only if it consists of "{az}*" pairs
dp[i][0] = i > 1 and dp[i2][0] and p[i1] == '*'
# Consider the empty pattern p[:0] against all substrings s[:j], j > 0
# Since an empty pattern cannot match nonempty strings, cells remain False
# Match the remaining subpatterns (p[:i], i > 0) with the remaining
# substrings (s[:j], j > 0)
for i in range(1, len(p)+1):
for j in range(1, len(s)+1):
# Case 1: Last char of subpattern p[i1] is an alphabet or '.'
if p[i1] == s[j1] or p[i1] == '.':
dp[i][j] = dp[i1][j1]
# Case 2: Last char of subpattern p[i1] is '*'
elif p[i1] == '*':
# Case 2a: Subpattern doesn't need '*' to match the substring
# If the subpattern without '*' matches the substring,
# the subpattern with '*' must still match
dp[i][j] = dp[i1][j]
# If the subpattern without '*' and its preceding alphabet
# matches the substring, then the subpattern with them
# must still match
dp[i][j] = i > 1 and dp[i2][j]
# Case 2b: Subpattern needs '*' to match the substring
# If the alphabet preceding '*' matches the last char of
# the substring, then '*' is used to extend the match for
# the substring without its last char
if i > 1 and p[i2] == s[j1] or p[i2] == '.':
dp[i][j] = dp[i][j1]
return dp[1][1]
 Same approach; rehashed  explanation video:
class Solution:
def isMatch(self, s: str, p: str) > bool:
s, p = ' '+ s, ' '+ p
lenS, lenP = len(s), len(p)
dp = [[0]*(lenP) for i in range(lenS)]
dp[0][0] = 1
for j in range(1, lenP):
if p[j] == '*':
dp[0][j] = dp[0][j2]
for i in range(1, lenS):
for j in range(1, lenP):
if p[j] in {s[i], '.'}:
dp[i][j] = dp[i1][j1]
elif p[j] == "*":
dp[i][j] = dp[i][j2] or int(dp[i1][j] and p[j1] in {s[i], '.'})
return bool(dp[1][1])
Complexity
 Time: \(O(m+n)\) where
m
are the number of unique elements inencoded1
, andn
are unique numbers inencoded2
 Space: \(O(len(encoded1) + len(encoded2))\)
[53/Easy] Maximum Subarray
Problem

Given an integer array
nums
, find the contiguous subarray (containing at least one number) which has the largest sum and return its sum. 
A subarray is a contiguous part of an array.

Example 1:
Input: nums = [2,1,3,4,1,2,1,5,4]
Output: 6
Explanation: [4,1,2,1] has the largest sum = 6.
 Example 2:
Input: nums = [1]
Output: 1
 Example 3:
Input: nums = [5,4,1,7,8]
Output: 23
 Constraints:
1 <= nums.length <= 105
104 <= nums[i] <= 104
F ollow up: If you have figured out the O(n)
solution, try coding another solution using the divide and conquer approach, which is more subtle.
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: Optimized Brute Force
 Intuition:
 This algorithm doesn’t reliably run under the time limit here on LeetCode. We’ll still look briefly at it though, as in an interview scenario it would be a great start if you’re struggling to come up with a better approach.
 Calculate the sum of all subarrays, and keep track of the best one. To actually generate all subarrays would take \(O(n^3)\) time, but with a little optimization, we can achieve brute force in \(O(n^2)\) time. The trick is to recognize that all of the subarrays starting at a particular value will share a common prefix.
 Algorithm:
 Initialize a variable
maxSubarray = infinity
to keep track of the best subarray. We need to use negative infinity, not 0, because it is possible that there are only negative numbers in the array.  Use a for loop that considers each index of the array as a starting point.
 For each starting point, create a variable
currentSubarray = 0
. Then, loop through the array from the starting index, adding each element tocurrentSubarray
. Every time we add an element it represents a possible subarray  so continuously updatemaxSubarray
to contain the maximum out of thecurrentSubarray
and itself.  Return
maxSubarray
.
 Initialize a variable
class Solution:
def maxSubArray(self, nums: List[int]) > int:
max_subarray = math.inf
for i in range(len(nums)):
current_subarray = 0
for j in range(i, len(nums)):
current_subarray += nums[j]
max_subarray = max(max_subarray, current_subarray)
return max_subarray
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n^2)\), where \(n\) is the length of
nums
. We use two nested for loops, with each loop iterating throughnums
.  Space: \(O(1)\) since no matter how big the input is, we are only ever using two variables:
ans
andcurrentSubarray
.
Solution: Kadane’s Algorithm: Track both min and max/DP
 Intuition:
 Whenever you see a question that asks for the maximum or minimum of something, consider Dynamic Programming as a possibility. The difficult part of this problem is figuring out when a negative number is “worth” keeping in a subarray. This question in particular is a popular problem that can be solved using an algorithm called Kadane’s Algorithm. If you’re good at problem solving though, it’s quite likely you’ll be able to come up with the algorithm on your own. This algorithm also has a very greedylike intuition behind it.
 Let’s focus on one important part: where the optimal subarray begins. We’ll use the following example.
nums = [2, 1, 3, 4, 1, 2, 1, 5, 4]
 We can see that the optimal subarray couldn’t possibly involve the first 3 values  the overall sum of those numbers would always subtract from the total. Therefore, the subarray either starts at the first 4, or somewhere further to the right.
 What if we had this example though?
nums = [2,1000000000,3,4,1,2,1,5,4]
 We need a general way to figure out when a part of the array is worth keeping.
 As expected, any subarray whose sum is positive is worth keeping. Let’s start with an empty array, and iterate through the input, adding numbers to our array as we go along. Whenever the sum of the array is negative, we know the entire array is not worth keeping, so we’ll reset it back to an empty array.
 However, we don’t actually need to build the subarray, we can just keep an integer variable
current_subarray
and add the values of each element there. When it becomes negative, we reset it to 0 (an empty array).
 Algorithm:
 Initialize 2 integer variables. Set both of them equal to the first value in the array.
currentSubarray
will keep the running count of the current subarray we are focusing on.maxSubarray
will be our final return value. Continuously update it whenever we find a bigger subarray.
 Iterate through the array, starting with the 2nd element (as we used the first element to initialize our variables). For each number, add it to the
currentSubarray
we are building. IfcurrentSubarray
becomes negative, we know it isn’t worth keeping, so throw it away. Remember to update maxSubarray every time we find a new maximum.  Return
maxSubarray
.
 Initialize 2 integer variables. Set both of them equal to the first value in the array.
 Implementation:
 A clever way to update
currentSubarray
is usingcurrentSubarray = max(num, currentSubarray + num)
. If currentSubarray is negative, thennum > currentSubarray + num
.
 A clever way to update
class Solution:
def maxSubArray(self, nums: List[int]) > int:
# Initialize our variables using the first element.
current_subarray = max_subarray = nums[0]
# Start with the 2nd element since we already used the first one.
for num in nums[1:]:
# If current_subarray is negative, throw it away. Otherwise, keep adding to it.
current_subarray = max(num, current_subarray + num)
max_subarray = max(max_subarray, current_subarray)
return max_subarray
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n)\) where \(n\) is the size of
nums
. The algorithm achieves linear runtime since we are going throughnums
only once.  Space: \(O(1)\) since no matter how long the input is, we are only ever using two variables:
currentSubarray
andmaxSubarray
.
[70/Easy] Climbing Stairs
Problem

You are climbing a staircase. It takes
n
steps to reach the top. 
Each time you can either climb 1 or 2 steps. In how many distinct ways can you climb to the top?

Example 1:
Input: n = 2
Output: 2
Explanation: There are two ways to climb to the top.
1. 1 step + 1 step
2. 2 steps
 Example 2:
Input: n = 3
Output: 3
Explanation: There are three ways to climb to the top.
1. 1 step + 1 step + 1 step
2. 1 step + 2 steps
3. 2 steps + 1 step
 Constraints:
1 <= n <= 45
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: Bottomup/Iterative DP
class Solution:
def climbStairs(self, n: int) > int:
# edge cases
if n == 0: return 0
if n == 1: return 1
if n == 2: return 2
stairs = [0] * (n + 1)
# consider 1st and 2nd step
stairs[1] = 1
stairs[2] = 2
# start iteration from 3rd index
for i in range(3, n + 1):
stairs[i] = stairs[i  1] + stairs[i  2]
return stairs[n]
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n)\)
 Space: \(O(n)\)
[139/Medium] Word Break
Problem

Given a string
s
and a dictionary of stringswordDict
, return true ifs
can be segmented into a spaceseparated sequence of one or more dictionary words. 
Note that the same word in the dictionary may be reused multiple times in the segmentation.

Example 1:
Input: s = "leetcode", wordDict = ["leet","code"]
Output: true
Explanation: Return true because "leetcode" can be segmented as "leet code".
 Example 2:
Input: s = "applepenapple", wordDict = ["apple","pen"]
Output: true
Explanation: Return true because "applepenapple" can be segmented as "apple pen apple".
Note that you are allowed to reuse a dictionary word.
 Example 3:
Input: s = "catsandog", wordDict = ["cats","dog","sand","and","cat"]
Output: false
 Constraints:
1 <= s.length <= 300
1 <= wordDict.length <= 1000
1 <= wordDict[i].length <= 20
s and wordDict[i] consist of only lowercase English letters.
All the strings of wordDict are unique.
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: Brute Force
 The naive approach to solve this problem is to use recursion and backtracking. For finding the solution, we check every possible prefix of that string in the dictionary of words, if it is found in the dictionary, then the recursive function is called for the remaining portion of that string. And, if in some function call it is found that the complete string is in dictionary, then it will return true.
class Solution:
def wordBreak(self, s: str, wordDict: List[str]) > bool:
def wordBreakRecur(s: str, word_dict: Set[str], start: int):
if start == len(s):
return True
for end in range(start + 1, len(s) + 1):
if s[start:end] in word_dict and wordBreakRecur(s, word_dict, end):
return True
return False
return wordBreakRecur(s, set(wordDict), 0)
Complexity
 Time: \(O(2^n)\). Given a string of length \(n\), there are \(n + 1\) ways to split it into two parts. At each step, we have a choice: to split or not to split. In the worse case, when all choices are to be checked, that results in \(O(2^n)\).
 Space: \(O(n)\). The depth of the recursion tree can go upto \(n\).
Solution: Recursion with memoization
 In the previous approach we can see that many subproblems were redundant, i.e., we were calling the recursive function multiple times for a particular string. To avoid this we can use memoization method, where an array is used to store the result of the subproblems. Now, when the function is called again for a particular string, value will be fetched and returned using the array, if its value has been already evaluated.
 With memoization many redundant subproblems are avoided and recursion tree is pruned and thus it reduces the time complexity by a large factor.
class Solution:
def wordBreak(self, s: str, wordDict: List[str]) > bool:
@lru_cache
def wordBreakMemo(s: str, word_dict: FrozenSet[str], start: int):
if start == len(s):
return True
for end in range(start + 1, len(s) + 1):
if s[start:end] in word_dict and wordBreakMemo(s, word_dict, end):
return True
return False
return wordBreakMemo(s, frozenset(wordDict), 0)
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n^3)\). \(n\) for the
for
loop. \(n\) for the substring. And \(n\) for recursion tree.  Space: \(O(n)\). The depth of recursion tree can go up to \(n\).
Solution: Using BreadthFirstSearch
 Another approach is to use BreadthFirstSearch. Visualize the string as a tree where each node represents the prefix upto index \(end\). Two nodes are connected only if the substring between the indices linked with those nodes is also a valid string which is present in the dictionary. In order to form such a tree, we start with the first character of the given string (say \(s\)) which acts as the root of the tree being formed and find every possible substring starting with that character which is a part of the dictionary.
 Further, the ending index (say \(i\)) of every such substring is pushed at the back of a queue which will be used for Breadth First Search. Now, we pop an element out from the front of the queue and perform the same process considering the string \(s(i+1,end)\) to be the original string and the popped node as the root of the tree this time. This process is continued, for all the nodes appended in the queue during the course of the process. If we are able to obtain the last element of the given string as a node (leaf) of the tree, this implies that the given string can be partitioned into substrings which are all a part of the given dictionary.
class Solution:
def wordBreak(self, s: str, wordDict: List[str]) > bool:
word_set = set(wordDict)
q = deque()
visited = set()
q.append(0)
while q:
start = q.popleft()
if start in visited:
continue
for end in range(start + 1, len(s) + 1):
if s[start:end] in word_set:
q.append(end)
if end == len(s):
return True
visited.add(start)
return False
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n^3)\). \(n\) for the while loop. \(n\) for the
for
loop. \(n\) for the substring. Note that for every starting index, the search can continue till the end of the given string.  Space: \(O(n)\)
Solution: Dynamic Programming
 The intuition behind this approach is that the given problem (\(s\)) can be divided into subproblems \(s1\) and \(s2\). If these subproblems individually satisfy the required conditions, the complete problem, ss also satisfies the same. e.g. “catsanddog” can be split into two substrings “catsand”, “dog”. The subproblem “catsand” can be further divided into “cats”,”and”, which individually are a part of the dictionary making “catsand” satisfy the condition. Going further backwards, “catsand”, “dog” also satisfy the required criteria individually leading to the complete string “catsanddog” also to satisfy the criteria.
 Now, we’ll move onto the process of dp array formation. We make use of dp array of size \(n+1\), where \(n\) is the length of the given string. We also use two index pointers \(i\) and \(j\), where \(i\) refers to the length of the substring \(\left(s^{\prime}\right)\) considered currently starting from the beginning, and \(j\) refers to the index partitioning the current substring \(\left(s^{\prime}\right)\) into smaller substrings \(s^{\prime}(0, j)\) and \(s^{\prime}(j+1, i)\). To fill in the dp array, we initialize the element \(\mathrm{dp}[0]\) as true, since the null string is always present in the dictionary, and the rest of the elements of dp as false. We consider substrings of all possible lengths starting from the beginning by making use of index \(i\). For every such substring, we partition the string into two further substrings \(s 1^{\prime}\) and \(s 2^{\prime}\) in all possible ways using the index \(j\) (Note that the \(i\) now refers to the ending index of \(s 2^{\prime}\) ). Now, to fill in the entry \(\mathrm{dp}[i]\), we check if the \(\operatorname{dp}[j]\) contains true, i.e. if the substring \(s 1^{\prime}\) fulfills the required criteria. If so, we further check if \(s 2^{\prime}\) is present in the dictionary. If both the strings fulfill the criteria, we make \(dp[i]\) as true, otherwise as false.
class Solution:
def wordBreak(self, s: str, wordDict: List[str]) > bool:
dp = [False] * (len(s)+1)
dp[0] = True
for i in range(1, len(s)+1):
for j in range(i):
if dp[j] and s[j:i] in wordDict:
dp[i] = True
break
return dp[1] # or dp[len(s)]
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n^3)\). There are two nested loops, and substring computation at each iteration. Overall that results in \(O(n^3)\) time complexity.
 Space: \(O(n)\). Length of \(p\) array is \(n+1\).
[152/Medium] Maximum Product Subarray
Problem

Given an integer array
nums
, find a contiguous nonempty subarray within the array that has the largest product, and return the product. 
The test cases are generated so that the answer will fit in a 32bit integer.

A subarray is a contiguous subsequence of the array.

Example 1:
Input: nums = [2,3,2,4]
Output: 6
Explanation: [2,3] has the largest product 6.
 Example 2:
Input: nums = [2,0,1]
Output: 0
Explanation: The result cannot be 2, because [2,1] is not a subarray.
 Constraints:
1 <= nums.length <= 2 * 104
10 <= nums[i] <= 10
The product of any prefix or suffix of nums is guaranteed to fit in a 32bit integer.
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: Brute Force
 Intuition:
 The most naive way to tackle this problem is to go through each element in nums, and for each element, consider the product of every a contiguous subarray starting from that element. This will result in a cubic runtime.
for i in [0...nums1]: for j in [i..nums1]: accumulator = 1 for k in [i..j]: accumulator = accumulator * nums[k] result = max(result, accumulator)
 We can improve the runtime from cubic to quadratic by removing the innermost for loop in the above pseudo code. Rather than calculating the product of every contiguous subarray over and over again, for each element in nums (the outermost for loop), we accumulate the products of contiguous subarrays starting from that element to subsequent elements as we go through them (the second for loop). By doing so, we only need to multiply the current number with accumulated product to get the product of numbers up to the current number.
Note: This brute force approach is included solely to build the foundation for understanding the following approach. This approach is not expected to pass all test cases.
 The most naive way to tackle this problem is to go through each element in nums, and for each element, consider the product of every a contiguous subarray starting from that element. This will result in a cubic runtime.
class Solution:
def maxProduct(self, nums: List[int]) > int:
if len(nums) == 0:
return 0
result = nums[0]
for i in range(len(nums)):
accu = 1
for j in range(i, len(nums)):
accu *= nums[j]
result = max(result, accu)
return result
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n^2)\) where \(n\) is the size of
nums
. Since we are checking every possible contiguous subarray following every element innums
we have quadratic runtime.  Space: \(O(1)\) since we are not consuming additional space other than two variables: result to hold the final result and
accu
to accumulate product of preceding contiguous subarrays.
Solution: Kadane’s Algorithm: Track both min and max/DP
 Intuition:
 The key intuition here is that when we can come upon a negative number, our current max can suddenly becomes a min but is still a max by absolute value. Following the next negative number, our min can become a max again. Therefore keeping track of min is useful.
 Explanation:
 Rather than looking for every possible subarray to get the largest product, we can scan the array and solve smaller subproblems.
 Let’s see this problem as a problem of getting the highest combo chain. The way combo chains work is that they build on top of the previous combo chains that you have acquired. The simplest case is when the numbers in
nums
are all positive numbers. In that case, you would only need to keep on multiplying the accumulated result to get a bigger and bigger combo chain as you progress.  However, two things can disrupt your combo chain:
 Zeros
 Negative numbers
 Zeros will reset your combo chain. A high score which you have achieved will be recorded in placeholder result. You will have to restart your combo chain after zero. If you encounter another combo chain which is higher than the recorded high score in result, you just need to update the result.
 Negative numbers are a little bit tricky. A single negative number can flip the largest combo chain to a very small number. This may sound like your combo chain has been completely disrupted but if you encounter another negative number, your combo chain can be saved. Unlike zero, you still have a hope of saving your combo chain as long as you have another negative number in
nums
(Think of this second negative number as an antidote for the poison that you just consumed). However, if you encounter a zero while you are looking your another negative number to save your combo chain, you lose the hope of saving that combo chain.  While going through numbers in
nums
, we will have to keep track of the maximum product up to that number (we will call max_so_far) and minimum product up to that number (we will callmin_so_far
). The reason behind keeping track ofmax_so_far
is to keep track of the accumulated product of positive numbers. The reason behind keeping track of min_so_far is to properly handle negative numbers. max_so_far
is updated by taking the maximum value among: Current number.
 This value will be picked if the accumulated product has been really bad (even compared to the current number). This can happen when the current number has a preceding zero (e.g. [0,4]) or is preceded by a single negative number (e.g.
[3,5]
). 1. Product of lastmax_so_far
and current number.  This value will be picked if the accumulated product has been steadily increasing (all positive numbers).
1. Product of last
min_so_far
and current number.  This value will be picked if the current number is a negative number and the combo chain has been disrupted by a single negative number before (In a sense, this value is like an antidote to an already poisoned combo chain).
min_so_far
is updated in using the same three numbers except that we are taking minimum among the above three numbers. In the animation below, you will observe a negative number
5
disrupting a combo chain but that combo chain is later saved by another negative number4
. The only reason this can be saved is because ofmin_so_far
. You will also observe a zero disrupting a combo chain.
class Solution:
def maxProduct(self, nums: List[int]) > int:
if len(nums) == 0:
return 0
max_so_far = nums[0]
min_so_far = nums[0]
result = max_so_far
for i in range(1, len(nums)):
curr = nums[i]
# have a temp because max gets calculated first and it will affect min's calculation
temp_max = max(curr, max_so_far * curr, min_so_far * curr)
min_so_far = min(curr, max_so_far * curr, min_so_far * curr)
max_so_far = temp_max
result = max(max_so_far, result)
return result
 Same approach; rehashed:
def maxProduct(self, nums):
"""
:type nums: List[int]
:rtype: int
"""
prev_max = nums[0] # max from previous iteration
prev_min = nums[0] # min from previous iteration
max_to_n = nums[0] # max this iteration
min_to_n = nums[0] # min this iteration
ans = nums[0]
for i in nums[1:]
# use previous max/min*current i or restart from i. The absolute value of the min could be larger so we store it.
max_to_n = max(max(prev_max*i, prev_min*i), i)
min_to_n = min(min(prev_max*i, prev_min*i), i)
prev_max = max_to_n
prev_min = min_to_n
ans = max(ans, max_to_n)
return ans
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n)\) where \(n\) is the size of
nums
. The algorithm achieves linear runtime since we are going throughnums
only once.  Space: \(O(1)\) since no additional space is consumed rather than variables which keep track of the maximum product so far, the minimum product so far, current variable, temp variable, and placeholder variable for the result.
[304/Medium] Range Sum Query 2D  Immutable
Problem

Given a 2D matrix
matrix
, handle multiple queries of the following type: Calculate the sum of the elements of
matrix
inside the rectangle defined by its upper left corner(row1, col1)
and lower right corner(row2, col2)
.
 Calculate the sum of the elements of

Implement the NumMatrix class:
NumMatrix(int[][] matrix)
Initializes the object with the integer matrix matrix.int sumRegion(int row1, int col1, int row2, int col2)
Returns the sum of the elements of matrix inside the rectangle defined by its upper left corner(row1, col1)
and lower right corner(row2, col2)
.

Example 1:
Input
["NumMatrix", "sumRegion", "sumRegion", "sumRegion"]
[[[[3, 0, 1, 4, 2], [5, 6, 3, 2, 1], [1, 2, 0, 1, 5], [4, 1, 0, 1, 7], [1, 0, 3, 0, 5]]], [2, 1, 4, 3], [1, 1, 2, 2], [1, 2, 2, 4]]
Output
[null, 8, 11, 12]
Explanation
NumMatrix numMatrix = new NumMatrix([[3, 0, 1, 4, 2], [5, 6, 3, 2, 1], [1, 2, 0, 1, 5], [4, 1, 0, 1, 7], [1, 0, 3, 0, 5]]);
numMatrix.sumRegion(2, 1, 4, 3); // return 8 (i.e sum of the red rectangle)
numMatrix.sumRegion(1, 1, 2, 2); // return 11 (i.e sum of the green rectangle)
numMatrix.sumRegion(1, 2, 2, 4); // return 12 (i.e sum of the blue rectangle)
 Constraints:
m == matrix.length
n == matrix[i].length
1 <= m, n <= 200
105 <= matrix[i][j] <= 105
0 <= row1 <= row2 < m
0 <= col1 <= col2 < n
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: Precompute sums for all matrices with (0, 0)
as top left corner and (i, j)
as bottom right corner
 Simple explanation:
 The idea is simple, just precompute sums for all matrices with
(0, 0)
as top left corner and(i, j)
as bottom right corner. There are \(O(n^2)\) of these matrices, so we store them in a 2D table. In order to make code simpler, we add an extra column and row, filled with0
.
 The idea is simple, just precompute sums for all matrices with
 Detailed explanation:
 This problem brings up one of the characteristics of a 2D matrix: the sum of the elements in any rectangular range of a
matrix
(M) can be defined mathematically by the overlap of four other rectangular ranges that originate atmatrix[0][0]
.  The sum of the rectangle
(0,0)>(i,j)
is equal to the cell(i,j)
, plus the rectangle(0,0)>(i,j1)
, plus the rectangle(0,0)>(i1,j)
, minus the rectangle(0,0)>(i1,j1)
. We subtract the last rectangle because it represents the overlap of the previous two rectangles that were added.
 With this information, we can use a dynamic programming (DP) approach to build a prefix sum matrix (
dp
) frommatrix
iteratively, wheredp[i][j]
will represent the sum of the rectangle(0,0)>(i,j)
. We’ll add an extra row and column in order to prevent outofbounds issues ati1
andj1
(similar to a prefix sum array), and we’ll filldp
with 0s.  At each cell, we’ll add its value from
matrix
to thedp
values of the cell on the left and the one above, which represent their respective rectangle sums, and then subtract from that the topleft diagonal value, which represents the overlapping rectangle of the previous two additions.  Then, we just reverse the process for
sumRegion()
: We start with the sum atdp[row2+1][col2+1]
(due to the added row/column), then subtract the left and top rectangles before adding back in the doublysubtracted topleft diagonal rectangle.  Note: Even though the test cases will pass when using an int matrix for
dp
, the values ofdp
can range from4e9
to4e9
per the listed constraints, so we should use a data type capable of handling more than 32 bits.
 This problem brings up one of the characteristics of a 2D matrix: the sum of the elements in any rectangular range of a
class NumMatrix:
def __init__(self, matrix: List[List[int]]):
if not matrix:
return
ylen, xlen = len(matrix), len(matrix[0])
self.dp = [[0 for _ in range(xlen+1)] for _ in range(ylen+1)] # or [[0] * (xlen+1) for _ in range(ylen+1)]
for i in range(ylen):
for j in range(xlen):
self.dp[i+1][j+1] = matrix[i][j] + self.dp[i][j+1] + self.dp[i+1][j]  self.dp[i][j]
# or
# for i in range(1, ylen):
# for j in range(1, xlen):
# self.dp[i][j] = dp[i1][j1] + self.dp[i1][j] + self.dp[i][j1]  self.dp[i1][j1]
def sumRegion(self, row1: int, col1: int, row2: int, col2: int) > int:
return self.dp[row2+1][col2+1]  self.dp[row1][col2+1]  self.dp[row2+1][col1] + self.dp[row1][col1]
# Your NumMatrix object will be instantiated and called as such:
# obj = NumMatrix(matrix)
# param_1 = obj.sumRegion(row1,col1,row2,col2)
Complexity
 Time:
 constructor: \(O(m * n)\) where \(m\) and \(n\) are the dimensions of the input matrix
sumRegion
: \(O(1)\)
 Space:
 constructor: \(O(m * n)\) for the DP matrix
 constructor: \(O(1)\) if you’re able to modify the input and use an inplace DP approach
sumRegion
: \(O(1)\)
[322/Medium] Coin Change
Problem

You are given an integer array
coins
representing coins of different denominations and an integeramount
representing a total amount of money. 
Return the fewest number of coins that you need to make up that amount. If that amount of money cannot be made up by any combination of the coins, return
1
. 
You may assume that you have an infinite number of each kind of coin.

Example 1:
Input: coins = [1,2,5], amount = 11
Output: 3
Explanation: 11 = 5 + 5 + 1
 Example 2:
Input: coins = [2], amount = 3
Output: 1
 Example 3:
Input: coins = [1], amount = 0
Output: 0
 Constraints:
1 <= coins.length <= 12
1 <= coins[i] <= 2^31  1
0 <= amount <= 104
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: BruteForce
 The problem could be modeled as the following optimization problem : \(\min_{x} \sum_{i=0}^{n  1} x_i\) subject to \(\sum_{i=0}^{n  1}\) , where \(a\) is the amount, \(c_i\) is the coin denominations, \(x_i\) is the number of coins with denominations \(c_i\) used in change of amount \(a\). We could easily see that \(x_i = [{0, \frac{a}{c_i}}]\)

A trivial solution is to enumerate all subsets of coin frequencies \([x_0\dots x_{n  1}]\) that satisfy the constraints above, compute their sums and return the minimum among them.
 Algorithm:
 To apply this idea, the algorithm uses backtracking technique to generate all combinations of coin frequencies \([x_0\dots x_{n1}]\) in the range \(([{0, \frac{a}{c_i}}])\) which satisfy the constraints above. It makes a sum of the combinations and returns their minimum or 1 in case there is no acceptable combination.
Complexity
 Time: \(O(a^n)\). In the worst case, we would have \(a\) subproblems, where each subproblem can be solved in \(n\) ways.
 Space: \(O(a)\). In the worst case, we would need to use coins of denomination 1 to make up the amount, making the depth of recursion \(a\). Therefore we need \(O(a)\) space used by the system recursive stack.
Solution: Topdown/Recursive DP
 Intuition:
 Could we improve the exponential solution above? Definitely! The problem could be solved with polynomial time using Dynamic Programming. First, let’s define:
\(F(a)\)  minimum number of coins needed to make change for amount \(a\) using coin denominations \([{c_0\ldots c_{n1}}]\)
 We note that this problem has an optimal substructure property, which is the key piece in solving any Dynamic Programming problems. In other words, the optimal solution can be constructed from optimal solutions of its subproblems. How to split the problem into subproblems? Let’s assume that we know \(F(a)\) where some change val_1, val_2, … for \(a\) which is optimal and the last coin’s denomination is CC. Then the following equation should be true because of optimal substructure of the problem:
 But we don’t know which is the denomination of the last coin \(C\). We compute \(F(a  c_i)\) for each possible denomination \(c_0, c_1, c_2 \ldots c_{n 1}\) and choose the minimum among them. The following recurrence relation holds:
\(F(a) = \min_{i=0 ... n1} { F(a  c_i) } + 1 \\ \text{subject to} \ ac_i \geq 0\)  \(F(a)=0, \text{when} a=0 \\ F(a) = 1 , \text{when} n = 0\)
 Recursion tree for finding coin change of amount 6 with coin denominations {1,2,3}:

In the recursion tree above, we could see that a lot of subproblems were calculated multiple times. For example the problem \(F(1)\) was calculated 1313 times. Therefore we should cache the solutions to the subproblems in a table and access them in constant time when necessary.

Algorithm:
 The idea of the algorithm is to build the solution of the problem from top to bottom. It applies the idea described above. It use backtracking and cut the partial solutions in the recursive tree, which doesn’t lead to a viable solution. Тhis happens when we try to make a change of a coin with a value greater than the amount \(a\). To improve time complexity we should store the solutions of the already calculated subproblems in a table.
Complexity
 Time: \(O(a*n)\). where \(a\) is the amount, \(n\) is number of denominations available. In the worst case, the recursive tree of the algorithm has height of \(a\) and the algorithm solves only \(a\) subproblems because it caches precalculated solutions in a table. Each subproblem is computed with \(n\) iterations, each corresponding to one coin denomination. Therefore there is \(O(a*n)\) time complexity.
 Space: \(O(a)\). We use extra space for the memoization table.
Solution: Bottomup/Iterative DP

The problem could be solved with polynomial time using Dynamic Programming. First, let’s define:
\(F(a)\)  minimum number of coins needed to make change for amount \(a\) using coin denominations \([{c_0\ldots c_{n1}}]\)

We note that this problem has an optimal substructure property, which is the key piece in solving any Dynamic Programming problems. In other words, the optimal solution can be constructed from optimal solutions of its subproblems. How to split the problem into subproblems? Let’s assume that we know \(F(a)\) where some change val_1, val_2, … for \(a\) which is optimal and the last coin’s denomination is CC. Then the following equation should be true because of optimal substructure of the problem:

But we don’t know which is the denomination of the last coin \(C\). We compute \(F(a  c_i)\) for each possible denomination \(c_0\), \(c_1\), \(c_2 \ldots c_{n 1}\) and choose the minimum among them.

Before calculating \(F(i)\), we have to compute all minimum counts for amounts up to \(i\). On each iteration \(i\) of the algorithm \(F(i)\) is computed as \(\min_{j=0 \ldots n1}{F(i c_j)} + 1\).
 In the example above you can see that:
class Solution:
def coinChange(self, coins: List[int], amount: int) > int:
dp = [float('inf')] * (amount + 1) # or math.inf
dp[0] = 0
for coin in coins:
# for each coin, go from the difference in value of the current coin to the amount
# and add the number of combinations for (indexcoin)
# note that the loop starts from the value of the coin because a coin does not impact
# any combination counts less than it's value.
# as shown above  consider value=2, all amounts less than 2 are not impacted by the presence of 2 cent coins.
for x in range(coin, amount + 1):
# the +1 below is because we've considered "coin", we need to add 1 to the number of coins
dp[x] = min(dp[x], dp[xcoin] + 1)
return dp[amount] if dp[amount] != float('inf') else 1 # or math.inf
Complexity
 Time: \(O(a*n)\). where \(a\) is the amount, \(n\) is number of denominations available. In the worst case, we have \(S\) subproblems. Each subproblem is computed with \(n\) iterations, each corresponding to one coin denomination. In other words, on each step the algorithm finds the next \(F(i)\) in \(n\) iterations, where \(1\leq i \leq S\). Therefore in total the iterations are \(S*n\).
 Space: \(O(a)\). We use extra space for the memoization table.
[329/Hard] Longest Increasing Path in a Matrix
Problem
 Given an
m x n
integersmatrix
, return the length of the longest increasing path in matrix. 
From each cell, you can either move in four directions: left, right, up, or down. You may not move diagonally or move outside the boundary (i.e., wraparound is not allowed).
 Example 1:
Input: matrix = [[9,9,4],[6,6,8],[2,1,1]]
Output: 4
Explanation: The longest increasing path is [1, 2, 6, 9].
 Example 2:
Input: matrix = [[3,4,5],[3,2,6],[2,2,1]]
Output: 4
Explanation: The longest increasing path is [3, 4, 5, 6]. Moving diagonally is not allowed.
 Example 3:
Input: matrix = [[1]]
Output: 1
 Constraints:
m == matrix.length
n == matrix[i].length
1 <= m, n <= 200
0 <= matrix[i][j] <= 2^31  1
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: Recursive/Topdown DP with DFS and Memoization
 We can find longest decreasing path instead, the result will be the same. Use
dp
to record previous results and choose the maxdp
value of smaller neighbors.
class Solution:
def longestIncreasingPath(self, matrix: List[List[int]]) > int:
def dfs(i, j):
if not dp[i][j]:
val = matrix[i][j]
dp[i][j] = 1 + max(
dfs(i  1, j) if i and val > matrix[i  1][j] else 0,
dfs(i + 1, j) if i < M  1 and val > matrix[i + 1][j] else 0,
dfs(i, j  1) if j and val > matrix[i][j  1] else 0,
dfs(i, j + 1) if j < N  1 and val > matrix[i][j + 1] else 0)
return dp[i][j]
if not matrix or not matrix[0]: return 0
M, N = len(matrix), len(matrix[0])
dp = [[0] * N for i in range(M)]
return max(dfs(x, y) for x in range(M) for y in range(N))
 Using
lru_cache
:
The naive approach here would be to iterate through the entire matrix (
M
) and attempt to traverse down each branching path, but we’d find ourselves repeating the same stretches of path over and over again. 
Rather than having to repeat subproblems, we should cache those completed subproblem results for future use in a memoization data structure. Since the paths can branch at any location, we should also use a depthfirst search (DFS) approach with recursion to efficiently traverse the paths. Python’s
@lru_cache
offers great inbuilt memoization instead of having to manually create a memoization data structure. It enables us to record previous results to smaller subproblems and we simply choose the max value among all four directions. 
Note that it is possible to use a bottomup dynamic programming (DP) approach here as well, but since there’s no convenient fixed point bottom location, we’d have to use a maxheap priority queue in order to traverse
M
in proper bottomup order. That would push the time complexity toO(N * M * log(N * M))
, so the memoization code is more efficient.) 
So we can just iterate through every cell in
M
and run our recursive helper (dfs
) which will fill in values in memo as it returns. For a given cell, if that cell’s solution has already been found, we can return it, otherwise we’ll take the best result of each of the four possible path directions. 
Once the main iteration has finished, the highest value in memo will be our answer. so we should return it.

class Solution:
def longestIncreasingPath(self, M: List[List[int]]) > int:
ylen, xlen = len(M), len(M[0])
@lru_cache(maxsize=None)
def dfs(y, x):
val = M[y][x]
return 1 + max(
dfs(y+1,x) if y < ylen  1 and val > M[y+1][x] else 0,
dfs(y1,x) if y > 0 and val > M[y1][x] else 0,
dfs(y,x+1) if x < xlen  1 and val > M[y][x+1] else 0,
dfs(y,x1) if x > 0 and val > M[y][x1] else 0)
return max(dfs(y, x) for y in range(ylen) for x in range(xlen))
 Same approach; indexing using complex numbers:
class Solution:
def longestIncreasingPath(self, matrix: List[List[int]]) > int:
def length(z):
if z not in memo:
memo[z] = 1 + max([length(Z)
for Z in (z+1, z1, z+1j, z1j)
if Z in matrix and matrix[z] > matrix[Z]]
or [0])
return memo[z]
memo = {}
matrix = {i + j*1j: val
for i, row in enumerate(matrix)
for j, val in enumerate(row)}
return max(map(length, matrix) or [0])
Solution: Iterative/Bottomup DP
class Solution:
def longestIncreasingPath(self, matrix: List[List[int]]) > int:
matrix = {i + j*1j: val
for i, row in enumerate(matrix)
for j, val in enumerate(row)}
length = {}
for z in sorted(matrix, key=matrix.get):
length[z] = 1 + max([length[Z]
for Z in (z+1, z1, z+1j, z1j)
if Z in matrix and matrix[z] > matrix[Z]]
or [0])
return max(length.values() or [0])
[516/Medium] Longest Palindromic Subsequence
Problem

Given a string
s
, find the longest palindromic subsequence’s length ins
. 
A subsequence is a sequence that can be derived from another sequence by deleting some or no elements without changing the order of the remaining elements.

Example 1:
Input: s = "bbbab"
Output: 4
Explanation: One possible longest palindromic subsequence is "bbbb".
 Example 2:
Input: s = "cbbd"
Output: 2
Explanation: One possible longest palindromic subsequence is "bb".
 Constraints:
1 <= s.length <= 1000
s consists only of lowercase English letters.
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: Topdown Recursive DP: If left == right, add 1; else chip one end at a time and take the max
class Solution:
def longestPalindromeSubseq(self, s):
"""
:type s: str
:rtype: int
"""
return self._longestPalindromeSubseq(s, 0, len(s)  1, {})
def _longestPalindromeSubseq(self, s, start, end, memo):
key = (start, end)
if key in memo:
return memo[key]
if start == end:
return 1
if start > end:
return 0
if s[start] == s[end]:
memo[key] = self._longestPalindromeSubseq(s, start + 1, end  1, memo) + 2
else:
memo[key] = max(
self._longestPalindromeSubseq(s, start + 1, end, memo),
self._longestPalindromeSubseq(s, start, end  1, memo)
)
return memo[key]
lru_cache
for memoization:
class Solution:
def longestPalindromeSubseq(self, s: str) > int:
@lru_cache(None)
def maxMatchCount(left, right):
if left > right:
return 0
if left == right:
return 1
if s[left] == s[right]:
# delve deeper into the string by chipping at both ends
# and add 2 for the current "left" and "right" match
return maxMatchCount(left+1, right1) + 2
else:
# if s[left] != s[right], chip one edge at a time and move ahead
return max(maxMatchCount(left+1, right), maxMatchCount(left, right1))
return maxMatchCount(0, len(s)1)
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n^2)\)
 Space: \(O(n^2)\) due to the callstacks for the recursion tree structure for
maxMatchCount
/_longestPalindromeSubseq
and memoizationmemo
[518/Medium] Coin Change 2
Problem

You are given an integer array
coins
representing coins of different denominations and an integeramount
representing a total amount of money. 
Return the number of combinations that make up that amount. If that amount of money cannot be made up by any combination of the coins, return 0.

You may assume that you have an infinite number of each kind of coin.

The answer is guaranteed to fit into a signed 32bit integer.

Example 1:
Input: amount = 5, coins = [1,2,5]
Output: 4
Explanation: there are four ways to make up the amount:
5=5
5=2+2+1
5=2+1+1+1
5=1+1+1+1+1
 Example 2:
Input: amount = 3, coins = [2]
Output: 0
Explanation: the amount of 3 cannot be made up just with coins of 2.
 Example 3:
Input: amount = 10, coins = [10]
Output: 1
 Constraints:
1 <= coins.length <= 300
1 <= coins[i] <= 5000
All the values of coins are unique.
0 <= amount <= 5000
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: Bottomup/Iterative DP
dp[i]
is the number of combinations whenamount = i
, the target is to finddp[amount]
where edge case isdp[0] = 1
.
For each coin in coins, if the coin is selected, then
icoin
must exist, that is,dp[i] = sum(dp[icoin])
.  Template:
 This is a classical dynamic programming problem.
 Here is a template one could use:
 Define the base cases for which the answer is obvious.
 Develop the strategy to compute more complex case from more simple one.
 Link the answer to base cases with this strategy.
 Example:
 Let’s take an example: amount = 11, available coins  2 cent, 5 cent and 10 cent. Note, that coins are unlimited.
 Base Cases: No Coins or Amount = 0
 If the total amount of money is zero, there is only one combination: to take zero coins, hence
dp[0] = 1
.  Another base case is no coins: zero combinations for amount > 0 and one combination for
amount == 0
.
 If the total amount of money is zero, there is only one combination: to take zero coins, hence
 2 Cent Coins
 Let’s go one step further and consider the situation with one kind of available coins: 2 cent.

It’s quite evident that there could be 1 or 0 combinations here, 1 combination for even amount and 0 combinations for the odd one.

Note that the same answer could be received in a recursive way, by computing the number of combinations for all amounts of money, from 0 to 11.

First, that’s quite obvious that all amounts less than 2 are not impacted by the presence of 2 cent coins. Hence for amount = 0 and for amount = 1 one could reuse the results from the figure 2.

Starting from
amount = 2
, one could use 2 cent coins in the combinations. Since the amounts are considered gradually from 2 to 11, at each given moment one could be sure to add not more than one coin to the previously known combinations. 
So let’s pick up 2 cent coin, and use it to make up amount = 2. The number of combinations with this 2 cent coin is a number combinations for amount = 0, i.e. 1.
 Now let’s pick up 2 cent coin, and use it to make up
amount = 3
. The number of combinations with this 2 cent coin is a number combinations foramount = 1
, i.e. 0.
 That leads to DP formula for number of combinations to make up the
amount = x: dp[x] = dp[x] + dp[x  coin]
, wherecoin = 2 cents
is a value of coins we’re currently adding.
 2 Cent Coins + 5 Cent Coins + 10 Cent Coins
 Now let’s add 5 cent coins. The formula is the same, but do not forget to add dp[x], number of combinations with 2 cent coins.
 The story is the same for 10 cent coins.
 Now the strategy is here:
 Add coins onebyone, starting from base case “no coins”.
 For each added coin, compute recursively the number of combinations for each amount of money from 0 to
amount
.
 Algorithm:
 Initiate number of combinations array with the base case “no coins”:
dp[0] = 1
, and all the rest = 0.  Loop over all coins:
 For each coin, loop over all amounts from 0 to
amount
:  For each amount
x
, compute the number of combinations:dp[x] += dp[x  coin]
.
 For each coin, loop over all amounts from 0 to
 Return
dp[amount]
.
 Initiate number of combinations array with the base case “no coins”:
class Solution:
def change(self, amount: int, coins: List[int]) > int:
dp = [0] * (amount + 1)
dp[0] = 1
for coin in coins:
# for each coin, go from the difference in value of the current coin to the amount
# and add the number of combinations for (indexcoin)
# note that the loop starts from the value of the coin because a coin does not impact
# any combination counts less than it's value.
# as shown above  consider value=2, all amounts less than 2 are not impacted by the presence of 2 cent coins.
for index in range(coin, amount+1):
dp[index] += dp[indexcoin]
return dp[amount]
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n \times amount)\) where \(n\) is the length of the coins array.
 Space: \(O(amount)\) for
dp
array.
[542/Medium] 01 Matrix
Problem

Given an
m x n
binary matrix mat, return the distance of the nearest 0 for each cell. 
The distance between two adjacent cells is 1.

Example 1:
Input: mat = [[0,0,0],[0,1,0],[0,0,0]]
Output: [[0,0,0],[0,1,0],[0,0,0]]
 Example 2:
Input: mat = [[0,0,0],[0,1,0],[1,1,1]]
Output: [[0,0,0],[0,1,0],[1,2,1]]
 Constraints:
m == mat.length
n == mat[i].length
1 <= m, n <= 104
1 <= m * n <= 104
mat[i][j] is either 0 or 1.
There is at least one 0 in mat.
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: BFS
from collections import deque
class Solution:
def updateMatrix(self, mat: List[List[int]]) > List[List[int]]:
rows, cols = len(mat), len(mat[0])
dir = [(1,0), (1,0), (0,1), (0,1)]
q = deque()
# iterate through whole matrix
# add coords of 0s to queue
# set non zero cells to #
for r in range(rows):
for c in range(cols):
if mat[r][c] == 0:
q.append((r,c))
else:
mat[r][c] = "#"
# start bfs
# first iterate through 0s and mark neighbors with corresponding values
# append neighbors to queue for further exploration
while q:
r, c = q.popleft()
for d in dir:
nr, nc = r + d[0], c + d[1]
if 0 <= nr < rows and 0 <= nc < cols and mat[nr][nc] == "#":
mat[nr][nc] = mat[r][c] + 1
q.append((nr, nc))
return mat
Complexity
 Time: \(O(r*c*\text{number of 0s})\) where \(r\) and \(c\) are the number of rows and cols in the input.
 Space: \(O(r*c)\)
Solution: DP
 Algorithm:

First calculate distance of cell based on its top and left cell.

Second calculate distance of cell based on its bottom and right cell.

class Solution:
def updateMatrix(self, mat: List[List[int]]) > List[List[int]]:
rows = len(mat)
cols = len(mat[0])
# General idea:
# First check if our current mat[r][c]>0, if so, lets update it to the min number to the top or left
# Then lets do the same with bottom and right
#0(r*c)^2
for r in range(rows):
for c in range(cols):
if mat[r][c] > 0:
top = mat[r  1][c] if r > 0 else math.inf
left = mat[r][c  1] if c > 0 else math.inf
mat[r][c] = 1 + min(top, left)
for r in range(rows  1, 1, 1):
for c in range(cols  1, 1, 1):
if mat[r][c] > 0:
bottom = mat[r + 1][c] if r < rows  1 else math.inf
right = mat[r][c + 1] if c < cols  1 else math.inf
mat[r][c] = min(bottom + 1, right + 1, mat[r][c])
return mat
Complexity
 Time: \(O(r*c)\) where \(r\) and \(c\) are the number of rows and cols in the input.
 Space: \(O(1)\)
[689/Hard] Maximum Sum of 3 NonOverlapping Subarrays
Problem

Given an integer array
nums
and an integerk
, find three nonoverlapping subarrays of lengthk
with maximum sum and return them. 
Return the result as a list of indices representing the starting position of each interval (0indexed). If there are multiple answers, return the lexicographically smallest one.

Example 1:
Input: nums = [1,2,1,2,6,7,5,1], k = 2
Output: [0,3,5]
Explanation: Subarrays [1, 2], [2, 6], [7, 5] correspond to the starting indices [0, 3, 5].
We could have also taken [2, 1], but an answer of [1, 3, 5] would be lexicographically larger.
 Example 2:
Input: nums = [1,2,1,2,1,2,1,2,1], k = 2
Output: [0,2,4]
 Constraints:
1 <= nums.length <= 2 * 104
1 <= nums[i] < 216
1 <= k <= floor(nums.length / 3)
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: Brute force
 One thing you’ll notice, if you do the brute force, is how many overlapping sub problems there are. This is a good place to start, because it can lead into the intuition for how DP might work. You try every index, and every non overlapping
kth
window offset from that window, and then everykth
window offset from the offset window. You literally try every solution.
class Solution:
def maxSumOfThreeSubarraysCustom(self, nums: List[int], k: int) > List[int]:
maxS = float('inf')
res = []
# e1, e2, e3 are ending indices of first, second and third intervals.
for e1 in range(k1, N  2*k):
s1 = e1  k + 1
for e2 in range(e1+k, N  k):
s2 = e2  k + 1
for e3 in range(e2+k, N):
s3 = e3  k + 1
tsum = dp[e1] + dp[e2] + dp[e3]
if tsum > maxS:
maxS = tsum
res = [s1, s2, s3]
return res
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n^3)\)
 Space: \(O(1)\)
Solution: Top Down DP without Memoization
 The idea here is similar, but implemented in a recursive top down approach. Note that this will also TLE, but gives use a better understanding of how caching might be implemented to save overlapping sub problems.
class Solution:
def maxSumOfThreeSubarrays(self, nums: List[int], k: int) > List[int]:
res = self.window_sum(nums, k, 0, 0)
return res[1]
def window_sum(self, nums, k, idx, used):
# we can only have 3 windows at a time
if used == 3:
return 0, []
# are we going to overflow over our nums array?
if idx  (used * k) > (len(nums)):
return 0, []
take_curr_sum, take_curr_indices = self.window_sum(nums, k, idx + k, used + 1)
take_curr_sum += sum(nums[idx:idx + k])
skip_curr_sum, skip_curr_indices = self.window_sum(nums, k, idx + 1, used)
if take_curr_sum >= skip_curr_sum:
return take_curr_sum, ([idx] + take_curr_indices)
else:
return skip_curr_sum, skip_curr_indices
Complexity
 Time: \(O(2^n)\)
 Space: \(O(n)\)
Solution: Top down with Memo
 It’s very slow, but with the memo solution this is close to a true O(n) sol. Note that this can be sped up using a prefix sum array, which will allow us to look up the sums of any interval between indices.
class Solution:
def maxSumOfThreeSubarrays(self, nums: List[int], k: int) > List[int]:
memo = {}
res = self.window_sum(nums, k, 0, 0, memo)
return res[1]
def window_sum(self, nums, k, idx, used, memo):
# we can only have 3 windows at a time
if used == 3:
return 0, []
# are we going to overflow over our nums array?
if idx  (used * k) > (len(nums)):
return 0, []
if (idx, used) in memo:
return memo[(idx, used)]
take_curr_sum, take_curr_indices = self.window_sum(nums, k, idx + k, used + 1, memo)
take_curr_sum += sum(nums[idx:idx + k])
skip_curr_sum, skip_curr_indices = self.window_sum(nums, k, idx + 1, used, memo)
if take_curr_sum >= skip_curr_sum:
memo[(idx, used)] = (take_curr_sum, ([idx] + take_curr_indices))
return memo[(idx, used)]
else:
memo[(idx, used)] = (skip_curr_sum, skip_curr_indices)
return memo[(idx, used)]
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n^2)\) due to
sum(nums[idx:idx + k])
but could beO(n)
using prefix sum.  Space: \(O(n)\)
Solution: DFS
 Simple DFS + memoization solution.
 Algorithm:
 Use prefix sum, in order to compute the sum in a certain range in \(O(N)\) and later accesses in \(O(1)\).
 DFS approach with 2 options: take \(k\) elements or skip the current element. During backtracking we take the solution with maximum sum. To obtain the lexicographically smallest one, we update the best solution even when the total sum is the same.
class Solution:
def maxSumOfThreeSubarrays(self, nums: List[int], k: int) > List[int]:
def get_prefix_sum():
prefix_sum = [0]*(L+1)
for i in range(L):
prefix_sum[i+1] = prefix_sum[i] + nums[i]
return prefix_sum
def dfs(i, N): #(i: index in nums, N: numbers of subarrays)
if not N:
return [], 0
if Li < k*N:
return None, float("inf")
if (i, N) in memo:
return memo[(i, N)]
# 2 options: take k elements or skip current value
include, cnt_in = dfs(i+k, N1) # take k elements
include, cnt_in = [i] + include, cnt_in+prefix_sum[i+k]prefix_sum[i] # build array and sum during backtracking
exclude, cnt_ex = dfs(i+1, N) # skip current value
if cnt_in >= cnt_ex: # to obtain the lexicographically smallest one
memo[(i,N)] = include, cnt_in
else:
memo[(i,N)] = exclude, cnt_ex
return memo[(i,N)]
memo = {}
L = len(nums)
prefix_sum = get_prefix_sum()
return dfs(0, 3)[0]
Solution: Sliding Window

The code below is an extension of this problem for unlimited \(m\) sliding windows. Note that \(m=3\) is just one case.

The basic principles are the standard:

We create a new
sliding_window[i]
, and use the results from our previous iterations to track the maximum value behind it. In this way, we can create generations of optimal results for a growing number of windows. 
The process can be initialized with an empty array of zeros (nothing found behind the first window).

At every step, we discard any results that didn’t create a new maximum (and copy our old values instead).

class Solution:
def makeS(self,nums,k):
s = sum(nums[:k])
S = [ s ]
for i in range(k,len(nums)):
s += nums[i]  nums[ik]
S.append( s )
return S
def maxSumOfThreeSubarrays(self, nums, k, m = 3):
L = len(nums)
if (k*m)>=L:
return sum( nums )
#
S = self.makeS(nums,k)
Aprev = [ [0,[]] for _ in range(L) ]
for i in range(m):
Anew = [ [ Aprev[0][0]+S[i*k], Aprev[0][1] + [i*k] ] ]
for j in range(i*k+1,len(S)):
sp,ip = Aprev[ji*k]
s = S[j] + sp
if s>Anew[1][0]:
Anew.append( [s, ip + [j] ] )
else:
Anew.append( Anew[1] )
Aprev = Anew
return Anew[1][1]
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n)\)
 Space: \(O(n)\)
[983/Hard] Minimum Cost For Tickets
Problem

Given an integer array
nums
and an integerk
, find three nonoverlapping subarrays of lengthk
with maximum sum and return them. 
Return the result as a list of indices representing the starting position of each interval (0indexed). If there are multiple answers, return the lexicographically smallest one.

Example 1:
Input: nums = [1,2,1,2,6,7,5,1], k = 2
Output: [0,3,5]
Explanation: Subarrays [1, 2], [2, 6], [7, 5] correspond to the starting indices [0, 3, 5].
We could have also taken [2, 1], but an answer of [1, 3, 5] would be lexicographically larger.
 Example 2:
Input: nums = [1,2,1,2,1,2,1,2,1], k = 2
Output: [0,2,4]
 Constraints:
1 <= nums.length <= 2 * 104
1 <= nums[i] < 216
1 <= k <= floor(nums.length / 3)
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution: Topdown DP with Recursion + Memoization
class Solution:
def mincostTickets(self, days: List[int], costs: List[int]) > int:
# to speed up element checking for days
travel_days = set(days)
# use python builtin cache as memoization for DP
@cache
def dp(day_d):
# Base case
if day_d == 0:
# no cost on before traveling
return 0
# General cases
if day_d not in travel_days:
# no extra cost on nontravel day
return dp(day_d1)
else:
# compute minimal cost on travel day
with_1_day_pass = dp(max(0, day_d  1)) + costs[0]
with_7_day_pass = dp(max(0, day_d  7) ) + costs[1]
with_30_day_pass = dp(max(0, day_d  30)) + costs[2]
return min(with_1_day_pass, with_7_day_pass, with_30_day_pass)
last_travel_day = days[1]
# Cost on last travel day of this year is the answer
return dp(last_travel_day)
Solution: Bottomsup DP with Iteration (i.e., Tabulation Method)
dp[i]
means overall costs until theith
day (included) We have to check two conditions:
i
in days list: We have three options:
 1pass:
dp[i] = dp[i1] + costs[0]
 7pass:
dp[i] = dp[i7] + costs[1]
 30pass:
dp[i] = dp[i30] + costs[2]
 1pass:
 In order to avoid invalid/negative indexes which are outofboundary:
 1pass:
dp[i] = dp[max(0,i1)] + costs[0]
 7pass:
dp[i] = dp[max(0,i7)] + costs[1]
 30pass:
dp[i] = dp[max(0,i30)] + costs[2]
 1pass:
 We have three options:
i
not in days:dp[i] = dp[i1]
 which simply means we don’t have to spend money, and total costs remains same.
class Solution:
def mincostTickets(self, days: List[int], costs: List[int]) > int:
# set of travel days
dy = set(days)
# last travel day
last_travel_day = days[1]
# Base case: no cost before first day (i.e., no travel)
# DP Table, record for minimum cost of ticket to travel
dp = [0 for _ in range(last_travel_day+1)]
# Solve min cost by Dynamic Programming
for i in range(last_travel_day+1):
if i not in dy:
# Today is not a traveling day, so no extra cost
dp[i] = dp[i1]
# For traveling day
else:
# Compute minimum cost for subproblem using DP
# cost[0]: the cost of 1daypass ticket
# cost[1]: the cost of 7daypass ticket
# cost[2]: the cost of 30daypass ticket
dp[i] = min(dp[max(0, i1)] + costs[0], dp[max(0, i7)] + costs[1], dp[max(0, i30)] + costs[2])
# Cost on last travel day of this year is the answer
return dp[1]
Complexity
 Time: \(O(n)\)
 Space: \(O(n)\) where \(n\) = last day in days list + 1
 Note that the max time and space complexity is \(O(366)\)
[1048/Medium] Longest String Chain
Problem
 You are given an array of words where each word consists of lowercase English letters.
wordA
is a predecessor ofwordB
if and only if we can insert exactly one letter anywhere inwordA
without changing the order of the other characters to make it equal towordB
. For example, “abc” is a predecessor of “abac”, while “cba” is not a predecessor of “bcad”.
 A word chain is a sequence of words
[word1, word2, ..., wordk]
withk >= 1
, whereword1
is a predecessor ofword2
,word2
is a predecessor ofword3
, and so on. A single word is trivially a word chain withk == 1
. 
Return the length of the longest possible word chain with words chosen from the given list of words.
 Example 1:
Input: words = ["a","b","ba","bca","bda","bdca"]
Output: 4
Explanation: One of the longest word chains is ["a","ba","bda","bdca"].
 Example 2:
Input: words = ["xbc","pcxbcf","xb","cxbc","pcxbc"]
Output: 5
Explanation: All the words can be put in a word chain ["xb", "xbc", "cxbc", "pcxbc", "pcxbcf"].
 Example 3:
Input: words = ["abcd","dbqca"]
Output: 1
Explanation: The trivial word chain ["abcd"] is one of the longest word chains.
["abcd","dbqca"] is not a valid word chain because the ordering of the letters is changed.
 Constraints:
1 <= words.length <= 1000
1 <= words[i].length <= 16
words[i] only consists of lowercase English letters.
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution

A naive approach would be to check every word against every other word looking for predecessors, but that would lead to a TLE result. The first important realization that we should be able to make is that while a word may have many
26 * (word.length + 1)
possible successors, it can only haveword.length
predecessors. 
So rather than iterating from small to large words and checking every combination for a link, we can store the words in a
set
and only check the few possible predecessors while iterating from large to small. To aid in that, we can actually separate words into an array of sets (W
) indexed by word length, so that we can directly access batches of words by their length. 
(Note: As we iterate backward through
W
, if we find thatW[i1]
is empty, we don’t need to process the words inW[i]
, since there cannot possibly be a predecessor match.) 
Then we can use a dynamic programming (DP) approach to eliminate some common subproblems. We can define a hashmap (
dp
) wheredp[word]
is the length of the longest chain ending at word found so far. 
So at each
word
, we’ll iterate through each of its predecessors (pred
) and check the appropriate set inW
for a match. If we find a match, we can updatedp[pred]
ifdp[word] + 1
is better, increasing the chain by one. We should also separately keep track of thebest
chain length we’ve seen, so that once we reach the end, we can justreturn best
.
class Solution:
def longestStrChain(self, words: List[str]) > int:
W = [set() for _ in range(17)]
for word in words:
W[len(word)].add(word)
dp, best = defaultdict(lambda:1), 1
for i in range(16, 0, 1):
if len(W[i1]) == 0:
continue
for word in W[i]:
wVal = dp[word]
for j in range(len(word)):
pred = word[0:j] + word[j+1:]
if pred in W[i1] and wVal >= (dp.get(pred) or 1):
dp[pred] = wVal + 1
best = max(best, wVal + 1)
return best
Complexity
 Time Complexity: \(O(n*m)\) where \(n\) is the length of words and \(m\) is the average length of the words in words.
 Space Complexity: \(O(n + p)\) where \(p\) is the number of predecessors found and stored in
dp
.
[1531/Hard] String Compression II
Problem
 Runlength encoding is a string compression method that works by replacing consecutive identical characters (repeated 2 or more times) with the concatenation of the character and the number marking the count of the characters (length of the run). For example, to compress the string
"aabccc"
we replace"aa"
by"a2"
and replace"ccc"
by"c3"
. Thus the compressed string becomes"a2bc3"
.  Notice that in this problem, we are not adding
'1'
after single characters.  Given a string s and an integer
k
. You need to delete at mostk
characters froms
such that the runlength encoded version ofs
has minimum length. 
Find the minimum length of the runlength encoded version of
s
after deleting at mostk
characters.  Example 1:
Input: s = "aaabcccd", k = 2
Output: 4
Explanation: Compressing s without deleting anything will give us "a3bc3d" of length 6. Deleting any of the characters 'a' or 'c' would at most decrease the length of the compressed string to 5, for instance delete 2 'a' then we will have s = "abcccd" which compressed is abc3d. Therefore, the optimal way is to delete 'b' and 'd', then the compressed version of s will be "a3c3" of length 4.
 Example 2:
Input: s = "aabbaa", k = 2
Output: 2
Explanation: If we delete both 'b' characters, the resulting compressed string would be "a4" of length 2.
 Example 3:
Input: s = "aaaaaaaaaaa", k = 0
Output: 3
Explanation: Since k is zero, we cannot delete anything. The compressed string is "a11" of length 3.
 Constraints:
1 <= s.length <= 100
0 <= k <= s.length
s contains only lowercase English letters.
 See problem on LeetCode.
Solution

Two ideas:
 Each group of repeated characters can be shortened only to no characters, one character, 9 character, or 99 characters. All other options either do not decrease the group code or consume extra available deletions.
 If there are some characters between two groups of the same character (e.g., “bg” in “aabga”), then a shorter coded sequence can be formed by dropping the intermediate part and by merging the surrounding groups of the same character (e.g.,
"aabga"
with dropped 2 characters >"a3"
).

Preprocessing:
 Form (1) string chars that holds group characters and (2) list frequency that holds frequencies of these characters within the groups. For string
"aabbbca"
, the string will be"abca"
and the list will be[2, 3, 1, 1]
.  Create table dynamic that storeы the results of the function to avoid repeated calculations. The table will be indexed by the group number (in string chars) and the number of available deletions.
 Form (1) string chars that holds group characters and (2) list frequency that holds frequencies of these characters within the groups. For string

Function FindMinLen:
 Along with the input ind of character group index and input
res_k
of available deletions, we keep track of carryovers from the previous group of same characters. Please see comments within the function.  The function calculates the smallest code length if we start with group ind and have
res_k
deletions. The function can account for carry_over number of characters that are added to the current group of characters.  Example of function usage. String is
"aaacgbbaaf"
, deduplicated string is"acgbaf"
, frequency list is[3, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1]
.  Function call
FindMinLen(4, 2, carry_over=3)
will calculate min code if we start with group 4 (remaining string"aaf"
), have 2 deletions, and group 4 needs to be increased by 3 characters as if we have string"aaaaaf"
.
 Along with the input ind of character group index and input
class Solution:
def getLengthOfOptimalCompression(self, s: str, k: int) > int:
# Find min lenth of the code starting from group ind, if there are res_k characters to delete and
# group ind needs to be increased by carry_over additional characters
def FindMinLen(ind, res_k, carry_over=0):
# If we already found the min length  just retrieve it (1 means we did not calculate it)
if carry_over == 0 and dynamic[ind][res_k] != 1:
return dynamic[ind][res_k]
# Number of character occurrences that we need to code. Includes carryover.
cur_count = carry_over + frequency[ind]
# Min code length if the group ind stays intact. The code accounts for singlecharacter "s0" vs. "s" situation.
min_len = 1 + min(len(str(cur_count)), cur_count  1) + FindMinLen(ind+1,res_k)
# Min length if we keep only 0, 1, 9, or 99 characters in the group  delete the rest, if feasible
for leave_count, code_count in [(0,0), (1, 1), (9, 2), (99, 3)]:
if cur_count > leave_count and res_k >= cur_count  leave_count:
min_len = min(min_len, code_count + FindMinLen(ind + 1,res_k  (cur_count  leave_count)))
# If we drop characters between this character group and next group, like drop "a" in "bbbabb"
next_ind = chars.find(chars[ind], ind + 1)
delete_count = sum(frequency[ind+1:next_ind])
if next_ind > 0 and res_k >= delete_count:
min_len = min(min_len, FindMinLen(next_ind, res_k  delete_count, carry_over = cur_count))
# If there was no carryover, store the result
if carry_over == 0: dynamic[ind][res_k] = min_len
return min_len
# Two auxiliary lists  character groups (drop repeated) and number of characters in the group
frequency, chars = [], ""
for char in s:
if len(frequency)==0 or char != chars[1]:
frequency.append(0)
chars = chars + char
frequency[1] += 1
# Table with the results. Number of character groups by number of available deletions.
dynamic = [[1] * (k + 1) for i in range(len(frequency))] + [[0]*(k + 1)]
return FindMinLen(0, k)
Famous DP Problems
 Floyd Warshall Algorithm  Tutorial and C Source
 Integer Knapsack Problem  Tutorial and C Source
 Longest Common Subsequence  Tutorial and C Source
Further Reading
 MIT 6.006: Video Lectures  Lessons 19, 20, 21, 22
 LeetCode Dynamic Programming Patterns
 TopCoder: Dynamic Programming from Novice to Advanced
 CodeChef
 InterviewBit
 GeeksForGeeks:
 How to write DP solutions
Quiz
 Sample Quiz to test your knowledge.